Cultural Barriers to Communication

“Culture is the pattern of taken-for-granted assumptions about how a given collection of people should think, act, and feel as they go about their daily affairs” -Joynt & Warner, 1996 Culture is all socially transmitted behavior, arts, architectures, languages, signs, symbols, ideas, beliefs, norms, traditions, rituals, etc. which is learnt and shared in a particular … Read more

Cultivation Theory

Cultivation theory or Cultivation hypothesis or Cultivation analysis was developed by Professor George Gerbner. Gerbner developed this theory on the basis of his mid-60’s research project on ‘cultural indicators’. The research was conducted to find out how watching television affects viewers’ perception. In 1976, Gerbner along with Gross expanded the theory and included media effects … Read more

Communication Patterns

Communication is a transfer of information. It is classified into verbal, non-verbal and written. It also has different forms: intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and mass communication. Similar is communication patterns, it shows how communication flows within a group. It is a part of group communication. What are Communication Patterns? Communication patterns are structures in which communication … Read more

Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

In 1960, David Berlo postulated Berlo’s Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver (SMCR) model of communication from Shannon Weaver’s Model of Communication (1949). He described factors affecting the individual components in the communication making the communication more efficient. The model also focuses on encoding and decoding which happens before sender sends the message and before receiver receives the message respectively. … Read more

Becker’s Mosaic Model of Communication

Sam Becker proposed a communication model in “The Prospect of Rhetoric” (1968), which is known as Becker’s Mosaic Model of Communication. According to him, the classical models of communication are not very useful in contemporary communication. The model explains the complexity of human communication. It also describes the randomness of the origin of messages and … Read more

Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication

Dean Barnlund proposed a transactional model of communication in 1970 for basic interpersonal communication which articulates that sending and receiving of messages happens simultaneously between people which is popularly known as Barlund’s Transactional Model of Communication. The model has been further adapted and reformed by other theorists as General Transactional Model. The model shifted from … Read more

Aristotle’s Model of Communication

Aristotle(384-322 B.C) was a Greek philosopher and writer born in Stagira, Northern Greece. He was also the teacher of Alexander the Great. He studied physics, logic, mathematics, etc. While exploring the human nature scientifically, Aristotle developed a linear model of communication for oral communication known as Aristotle’s Model of Communication. This is considered as the … Read more

Interactive Model of Communication

Interactive model (also known as convergence model) deals with exchange of ideas and messages taking place both ways from sender to receiver and vice-versa. The communication process take place between humans or machines in both verbal or non-verbal way. This is a relatively new model of communication for new technologies like web. Components of Interactive … Read more