Simply speaking, it is a process of creating a pool of candidates interested to do certain job and choosing the best-qualified ones from within.
Recruitment is an essential part of acquisition function of human resource management which can be defined as the process of searching for eligible candidate and encouraging them to apply for the post with possible vacancy in near future.
Recruitment is not an easy task and involves various steps that are mentioned below.
- Formation of strong recruitment committee
- Identifying the post
- Identifying right candidates
- Identifying sources of recruitment
- Proper advertisement
- Application process management
For a sound recruitment process to be conducted, the recruitment committee should be formed of able personnel. In case of lack of knowledge about correct and effective recruitment process, the recruitment committee might make wrong decision for the company.
The foremost task that the management team needs to do while recruiting employees is to analyze the job or type of work that the employees need to do. In this step, the employers prepare job description.
What is job description?
Ideas about the kind of employees that are needed to perform the job becomes clear to some extent while preparing job description. But for precise selection of employee, the management team should prepare job specification.
What is job specification?
Once the job description and the job specimen are prepared, the management team becomes clear about what kind of employees are being demanded by the job. Then they start to analyze the most appropriate source for recruitment. A company basically has two sources of recruitment; internal and external.
Sources of internal recruitment
When a company hires employee for the job from within the business premises, it is known as internal recruitment. Company can consider following sources to recruit employees internally.
i. Present permanent employees
When the company needs to hire employee at higher level or managerial level, it can consider available permanent employees. It is advantageous in several ways such as
ii. Retired employees
Sometimes companies decide to re-employ their ex-employees as a symbol of reward for their contribution and loyalty, and sometimes due to pressure from trade unions or other obligations.
iii. Dependents of disabled or deceased employees
Sometimes employees of company may pass away or get disabled due to accidents inside or outside the workplace. Organizations, in attempt to fulfill their responsibility towards such employees, recruit their dependents in their post.
Sources of external recruitment
Employees can be recruited from outside the company as well. Some sources of external recruitment are described below.
i. Employment agencies
Employment agencies work as a middlemen between the job seekers and the job providers. They keep record of both the parties and match the right candidate with job. At the end, they charge commission for rendering their service.
Sometimes, people come at the door of company, seeking for jobs. This is applicable while recruiting employees at low-level posts.
The main advantages of walk-ins are
iii. Educational institutes
Several companies these days recruit employees directly from educational institutes such as colleges and universities. For this purpose, companies at first build up relationship with educational institutes and these institutes supply fresh graduates to companies annually. This is an economic source of external recruitment.
Before publicizing job vacancies, the management team should decide how and where to post the advertisement. Advertisement is published with intention of attracting as many applicants as possible so that the selection team can select the best-qualified candidate from a pool of applicants. Therefore, advertisement should be designed in a way that it catches attention of every prospective candidates.
Features of qualitative job application
1. Job description and job specification should be clear
2. Must be published in appropriate media
3. Must stimulate prospective candidates to apply for the job.
A qualitative job advertisement should give complete information about the job description and job specification regarding the concerned job. At the same time, it must be published in appropriate media to attract the most applicants. In past, newspapers or print media were mostly used for publishing job. Nowadays, electronic media like television and radio as well as internet is used for advertising job vacancies. Although advertising vacancies on print media is regarded formal, electronic media and internet is also an effective way of attracting applicants.
Interested and prospective candidates are likely to apply for the post in either of these formats; application form or curriculum vitae. In past, these documents were submitted in written / printed form while they are accepted electronically as well at present. Companies should arrange both ways to gather as many applications as possible.
As soon as recruitment process ends, the process of selection takes place.