Training and Types of Training
Skilled workers are the key to smooth functioning and progress of any company. Therefore, skills and qualifications of an employee are carefully evaluated while they are being recruited.
Hiring potential employees can help the company to achieve the organizational goal to some extent but it will not be helpful in a long run. It is because business environment is dynamic in nature and it demands new skills to cope with the changes.
It would be too expensive for any company to replace its employees time and again. So, a company, to sustain in the market without replacing its employees, should provide training to its existing employees.
What exactly is employee training?
Employee training is a special program designed to increase specific skills or knowledge in the employees, as per the necessity of the company.
How to train employees?
There are basically two types of training methods used to train the employees. They are:
On-site training, also known as on-the-job training is such training programs which are conducted inside the office’s premises. Under this method, the inexperienced staffs learn new things by observing and imitating coworkers or superiors performing the job. Such training are cheaper and easier to conduct, and the best thing is official works are not disturbed.
On-site training is further divided into various subtypes, which are briefly described below.
Coaching is a one-to-one training, meaning a single employee is trained by a single senior. Under this training method, the senior first identifies the weak point of the employee and then focuses on fixing them theoretically or practically. This method can be adopted to guide operational level employees.
Mentoring is similar to coaching as it is also one-to-one training. However, it is different from coaching as it focuses on developing attitudes of employees rather than technical skills. Such training is provided to the employee of managerial level by the seniors of the company.
Job instructional technique (JIT)
Job Instructional Technique (JIT) is a structured training method, under which the staffs are provided training step by step. Two or more trainers can be involved in a single JIT.
For an example, let us suppose that there are 4 instructors A, B, C and D. At first, trainer A provides overview of the job to the staff. Overview is concerned with the purpose of the job and the desired output from it. Secondly, trainer B practically exhibits or explains the job. After that, trainer C observes how well the staff can comply their knowledge, and finally, trainer D provides feedback as well as helps the staff if necessary. All these steps can be carried out by single or lesser number of trainers.
Job rotation is an interesting way of training employees by rotating them through a series of closely related jobs. Such training allows the employee to learn many things and make them familiar with different jobs. Also, such training program promotes rapport between the workers and is really helpful to eliminate boredom at the workplace.
Apprenticeship is the modern approach of training the practitioners. Such method of training is adopted while training inexperienced staffs or fresh graduates, especially from technical field.
Under this method, the staff at first serves as an apprentice to the superiors or experts. They do the same task as an ordinary staff would do but under the guidance or supervision of their superiors.
Apprentices are paid less than other staffs of same post would receive. However, it is an expensive method of training because there is no assurance that the staff will continue to work for the same company.
Understudy is basically the person who replaces any staff in their absence.
Understudy training is the process in which superior instructs the staff by considering them as an understudy. The staff then learns from the senior by observing and experiencing to handle day to day tasks. Such training finally makes the staff ready to handle full responsibility on his / her own.
Off-site or off-the-job training are those training programs which are conducted away from the workplace. It is an expensive but effective way of training staffs. Some important ways of off-site training are described below.
Lectures and conferences
They are traditional method of training the employees. These programs aim at training a large audience through verbal presentation and interaction.
Lectures and conferences should be motivating in order to be effective and a strong speaker is a must to conduct such programs.
Vestibule training is a modern method of training staffs under which the staffs are trained at prototype environment of specific jobs. Such training makes the staff ready to work at real workplace as the work environment and conditions are similar to the actual workplace. This training is also known to reduce initial nervousness.
A number of people work together in the company and it is very essential for every staff to consider his/her co-workers sentiments and feelings. Sensitivity training is a special training provided to the employees to make them capable of understanding about themselves and about others reasonably.
Such training aims at developing behavioral flexibility and social sensitivity in the employees, in an attempt to develop the ability to sense others feelings and opinions. These training also help an individual to realize his/her personal qualities as well as issues.