Mass Communication

Spiral of Silence Theory

Spiral of silence theory was first proposed by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1984. She was a German political scientist, President of “World Association for Public Opinion Research” and one of the founders of “Public Opinion Organization”.

Normative Theory

Normative theories of communication are a group of four press theories proposed by Fred Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm together in their book called “Four Theories of the Press”. The theories are also known as Western theories of mass media.

Communication Accommodation Theory

Communication accommodation theory, related to social identity theory, is about people adjusting to communicate by minimizing social differences. The theory was developed by Howard Giles, a professor teaching communication at the University of California in 1971. The theory is an advancement of speech adjustment theory talking about psychological concepts on dynamics of speech. Communication accommodation theory is related to social psychology.

Expectancy Violation Theory

Unexpected behavioral change of people while interacting is explained by Expectancy Violation Theory. The theory was proposed by Judee. K. Burgoon(a professor of Communication, Family Studies and Human Development) and talks about how nonverbal communication’s affect and influence behavior of people.

Face Negotiation Theory

Asians and Americans have a difference that is less talked about, not racial but social in nature. The difference is how they behave in conflict situations due to their social upbringing, as Asians belong to collectivist culture and they think of their whole group before making any decision and try to negotiate to protect their image in conflicts unlike Americans.

Contagion Theory

­­­While contagion literally means "through touch" and is commonly used to explain the spread of diseases, in communication, it means the social transmission, by contact, of ideas, culture and behaviours. It assumes that social transmission can occur from mere touch or contact with culture. Contagion theory talks about collective behavior of human beings.

Groupthink Theory

'Group think' is a process where certain number of people come together with unanimous decisions that concerns the whole group and decide a possible course of action. These groups come to situations where they have to decide between unanimity (agreement by all people involved) and objective solution and they go for unanimity rather than going for other options.

Standpoint Theory

People see the world from where they stand; this is their standpoint. Everybody have different standpoints depending on their social, political, economic, life, which affects their worldview. It sets the attitude of a person and changes their perception. The theory that defines this viewpoint is known as Standpoint Theory.

Gatekeeping Theory

Billions of events take place around the globe in a single day. People cannot access them all, so they use these mediators to manage the information according to relevancy and proximity. Gatekeeping is the information managing process by media for selecting information to be broadcasted in media on the basis of the type of information, content, nature of information, type of event, etc. The process explains why and how some information are published and some are not.

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