Transactional Model of Communication

Transactional model of communication is the exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages. Here, both sender and receiver are known as communicators and their role reverses each time in the communication process as both processes of sending and receiving occurs at the same time. The communicators … Read more

Sociocultural Theory

Sociocultural theory is a psychological and sociological theory. The theory was developed by Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, in 1934. The theory talks about the importance of society and culture to shape and develop an individual. It shows how parents, friends, teachers, and society develop the individual’s sociocultural, learning and cognitive functions. Similarly, the theory … Read more

Social Exchange Theory

Social exchange theory is a social psychology concept that views human relationships as a kind of results-driven social behavior. We choose to start and maintain relationships that maximize benefits and minimize costs.There is a certain amount of give and take in each relationship and the valuing of benefits and costs within them determine whether or … Read more

Shannon and Weaver Model Of Communication

Shannon Weaver model of communication was created in 1948 when Claude Elwood Shannon wrote an article “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” in Bell System Technical Journal with Warren Weaver. Shannon was an American mathematician whereas Weaver was a scientist. The Mathematical theory later came to be known as Shannon Weaver model of communication or “mother … Read more

Semantic Barriers of Communication

Definition of Semantic Barriers Semantic is the study of meaning, signs and symbols used for communication. The word is derived from “sema”, a Greek word meaning signs. Semantic barriers to communication are the symbolic obstacles that distorts the sent message in some other way than intended, making the message difficult to understand. The meaning of … Read more

Psychological Barriers to Communication

A barrier is any obstacle that prevents us from reaching our goal. Any hindrance to communication stops the intended meaning of our message from reaching our audience. Some of these barriers are obvious e.g. a physical disability like deafness while some are more subtle and difficult to pinpoint. Psychological barriers belong to the latter group … Read more

Propaganda Model of Communication

Propaganda Model of Communication was developed to explain how propaganda, systematic biases, pressures, and constraints have been influencing mass media. The model explains how economic, social and political policies are manufactured in order to manipulate the populations for the welfare of those groups with power and money. The founders of this model mostly concentrated on … Read more

Physiological Barriers to Communication

Definition of Physiological Barriers Physiology is the state of human body and mind. Physiological barriers of communication occur due to the physical condition of sender or receiver which might even be physical disabilities. It includes sensory dysfunction and other physical dysfunctions. Effective communication requires proper functioning of the senses in both the sender and the … Read more

Physical Barriers to Communication

Physical barrier is the environmental and natural condition that act as a barrier in communication in sending message from sender to receiver. Organizational environment or interior workspace design problems, technological problems and noise are the parts of physical barriers. When messages are sent by the sender, physical barriers like doors, walls, distance, etc. do not … Read more

Non-verbal Communication in Different Cultures

Non-verbal communication is communication that occurs without words which is continuous. It is body language and environmental context involved in any communication. It is not what is said with words but how it is said and expressed. There are many types of non-verbal communications like eye contact, hand movements, facial expressions, touch, gestures, etc. Non-verbal … Read more